1, penetrating the role of penetration refers to the X-ray through the material is not the ability to absorb. X-rays can penetrate substances that are not visible to visible light. Visible light because of its longer wavelength, the photon its energy is very small, when fired on the object, a part of the reflection, most of the material absorbed, can not pass through the object; and X-ray is not, because of its short wavelength, energy Large, according to the material, only part of the material absorbed by the majority of the gap through the atomic and through, showing a strong ability to penetrate. The ability of X-ray to penetrate matter is related to the energy of X-ray photons. The shorter the wavelength of X-rays, the greater the energy of photons and the stronger the penetrating power. X-ray penetration is also related to the density of matter, the density of substances, the absorption of X-ray, through less; density of small, less absorption, through more. The use of differential absorption of this nature can be different density of bone, muscle, fat and other soft tissue to distinguish. This is the physical basis of X-ray fluoroscopy and photography.
2, ionization of substances by X-ray irradiation, so that nuclear electrons away from the atomic orbit, this role is called ionization. In the photoelectric effect and scattering process, the process of photoelectron and recoil electrons from their atoms is called a single ionization, these photoelectrons or recoil electrons in the process of collision with other atoms, so that the atoms were escaped electrons called secondary ionization. In solid and liquid. Ionization after the positive and negative ions will soon be complex, not easy to collect. But in the gas forget the charge is very easy to collect up, the use of ionization charge can determine the amount of X-ray exposure: X-ray measurement equipment is based on this principle made. Due to ionization, so that the gas can be conductive; some substances can be a chemical reaction; in the body can induce a variety of biological effects. Ionization is the basis of X-ray injury and treatment.
3, fluorescence due to the X-ray wavelength is very short, it is not visible. But it is irradiated to certain compounds such as phosphorus, platinum barium cyanide, zinc cadmium sulfide, calcium tungstate, etc., due to ionization or excitation to make the atoms in the excited state, the atoms back to the ground state process, due to valence electron energy level transition Radiation of visible light or ultraviolet light, which is fluorescent. X-ray effect of the phenomenon of fluorescent substances called fluorescence. Fluorescence intensity is proportional to the amount of X-rays. This effect is the basis for X-ray application. In the X-ray diagnostic work using this fluorescence can be made into a fluorescent screen, augmentation screen, image intensifier in the input screen. Fluorescent screen used as a perspective to observe the X-ray image through the human body, the screen is used to enhance the film when the photographic light.
4, the heat of the material absorbed by the X-ray energy, most of the heat is converted into the object temperature, which is the role of heat.
5, interference, diffraction, reflection, refraction of these effects and visible light. In X-ray microscopy, wavelength determination and material structure analysis have been applied.